The Nobel Prize winners for 2016 have been announced, highlighting the prolonged efforts and successes of scientists worldwide with arguably the highest honour.
David J. Thouless (University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA), F. Duncan M. Haldane (Princeton University, NJ, USA), J. Michael Kosterlitz (Brown University, Providence, RI, USA)
These three laureates for Physics this year were given the award because of their pioneering study of exotic matter: matter that is not made up of subatomic particles like protons and neutrons. Using advanced mathematical methods, they have studied unusual states of matter like superconductors and superfluids. The hope is that the advancements in this field will lead to excitement developments in future generations of electronics and future quantum computers.
Jean-Pierre Sauvage (University of Strasbourg, France) Sir J. Fraser Stoddart (Northwestern University, Ivanston, IL, USA) Bernard L. Feringa (University of Groningen, Netherlands)
These nobel prize winners were jointly awarded the honour for their work in design and synthesis of molecular machines. A molecular machine is a molecule that has controllable components, movable after energy input. They are described as the world’s “tiniest machines”, only a few nanometres in length.
Yoshinori Ohsumi (University of Tokyo, Japan)
The sole recipient of this award, Ohsumi was commended for his discoveries of “mechanisms for autophagy”. Autophagy is the process within cells of self-cleaning and recycling whereby cellular organelles are intrinsically destroyed and recycled. Despite the difficulty of elucidating this mechanism, Ohsumi devised a method of using baker’s yeast in order to identify those genes responsible for the process of autophagy.
The Nobel Prize Awards are held in Sweden annually and awards are bestowed in a number of categories.
Read more on the website. https://www.nobelprize.org/